What cold showers and exercise have in common

Posted 17 Feb 2014 — by Todd
Category Diet, Fitness, Hormesis, Uncategorized

lewisgordonpugh2PA1307_468xCan cold showers, winter plunges, and brisk walks in the chilly outdoors provide some of the same benefits as intense exercise—including weight loss and increased energy levels?  Such a link has been suspected, because cold exposure is known to convert metabolically docile white adipose tissue (WAT) into metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT). This “brown fat” helps you stay warmer and burn more energy.  But now there is some evidence that cold exposure doesn’t merely help you turn up your inner furnace, and burn off a little fat in the short term.  It may actually lower your body’s weight set point by activating a hormone that is also released during intense exercise.

That hormone is irisin (pronounced “EYE-rissin”), a cytokine produced in skeletal muscle.  From the initial evidence, irisin and its partner hormone FGF21 may provide lasting benefits by boosting your metabolism and inducing you to shed excess pounds. Read More

Getting Stronger now on Facebook

Posted 04 Jan 2014 — by Todd
Category Uncategorized

facebook iconMuch of the traffic to this blog comes from followers who have linked to blog articles that they like here.  So I’ve just launched a Facebook page where I’ll frequently add links to interesting articles, post comments and questions, and generally encourage discussion on topics related to hormesis, such as diet, fitness, vision improvement, immune enhancement, psychology and even Stoicism.

The first linked article on the Facebook page relates to cold exposure and improve immunity.  Check it out!

Let me know what you think about this…and please follow on Facebook using the link in the right margin, or just by clicking this hyperlink:

Click here for Facebook page

Banish back pain and sore muscles

Posted 08 Dec 2013 — by Todd
Category Diet, Fitness, Health, Hormesis, Rehabilitation

Is back pain and muscle soreness an inevitable consequence of intense physical activity and getting older?

images-2I don’t believe so.  The conclusion of my recent research and personal experience is that back and muscle pain can largely be prevented and reversed. (Caveat: This article is about pain that originates in muscles and connective tissue — I will not address pain due to disc herniation, spinal stenosis, degeneration, infection or cancer).

By implementing a few key strategies over the past year, I’ve almost eliminated the sore muscles or back pain that I used to experience after a long run or heavy workout. I’m able to quickly recover with little downtime. And I do it without resorting to anti-inflammatory medicines, icing, massage, stretching or many techniques that are commonly recommended to reduce or prevent pain and soreness. As I’ll show, a combination of specific exercises and dietary interventions can great help reduce and immunize you against back pain and muscle soreness.

This article is one of my longer ones, because I had to synthesize a broad spectrum of information into a coherent perspective on muscle pain and its prevention.  I hope you can stick with me or read it in bite sized pieces.  I will break it into four parts. If you just want my recommendations, skip to Part 4.  For those who want to understand the science, read on…

Part 1.  The biology of pain

Part 2.  Exercise for pain prevention

Part 3.  Diet for pain prevention

Part 4.  Recommendations

Read More

How attitude transforms stress

Posted 13 Sep 2013 — by Todd
Category Health, Psychology

Listen to this inspirational TED talk by Stanford psychologist Kelly McGonigal. In my earlier post on Voluntary Stress, I wrote about the importance of attitude in how the body and mind respond to stress.   McGonigal’s presentation here  makes a nice connection between the psychology and the hormonal physiology of stress.  Towards the end of the talk there is a very interesting discussion of oxytocin and the social dimension of the successful stress response.

Thanks to Tony Kiel and Marnia Robinson for each making me aware of this great talk.

 

The case against nutritional supplements

Posted 17 Aug 2013 — by Todd
Category Diet, Health, Hormesis, Uncategorized

Here is a hyperlink with slides from the talk I gave today at the Ancestral Health Symposium 2013 in Atlanta.  I will upload a video of the talk once the organizers make it available.  Until then, you can click on the “Link to audio recording”  to listen to a recording that one of the conference attendees made and posted on YouTube.   The sound is a bit faint, but still audible, and should make the slides more intelligible.

Todd question AHS2013 - Copy

This presentation is based on material from several previous blog posts

The talk includes some new material not covered in those previous posts, in particular addressing antioxidant recycling, supplementation of calcium and the essential fatty acids EPA and DHA.  I have also provided a list of references of supporting studies and literature in the final 3 slides.

I enjoyed meeting many new faces and recognizing old ones at this year’s AHS.

 

Antifragile

Posted 07 Jul 2013 — by Todd
Category Diet, Fitness, Health, Hormesis, Psychology, Stoicism

Hormesis is the ability of organisms to become stronger when exposed to low-dose stress.  Is hormesis a basic principle of biology — or is it merely a strange but unimportant quirk of nature that only applies in exceptional circumstances?

Unknown-7Nassim Nicholas Taleb–the options trader turned philosopher–is intrigued by hormesis, and sees it as but one example of a much broader phenomenon:  a fundamental principle he calls “antifragility”. The principle of antifragility applies not just to biology–but to sociology, economics, and perhaps even physics. Taleb has been developing this idea for a number of years.  Antifragility made a subdued appearance in his 2007 blockbuster work, The Black Swan, a guide to dealing with unpredictable yet momentously consequential events in our increasingly volatile world. Taleb has now more fully developed the concept of antifragility in his most recent book, Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder.

The antifragile is the antithesis of the fragile.  You might suppose that the opposite of “fragile” is something like “robust” — something that resists change. But Taleb points out that that would be the wrong answer.  A fragile thing – a package of wine glasses, perhaps — is easily broken when subjected to a stressor, such as being dropped.   Something robust is merely resistant to breakage. But an antifragile object actually benefits by being subjected to stress.  Taleb conjures up an image of the fragile as an object we would ship in a box marked “Handle with Care”; by contrast, a box holding the antifragile would be labelled “Please Mishandle”

At first, this seems to be a tease.  Are there really such antifragile things?  Yes, indeed; the world is full of them, including you and me. And there are steps we can take to become ever more antifragile.

Read More

Physical improvements using hormesis

Posted 17 Jun 2013 — by Todd
Category Diet, Fitness, Health, Hormesis

Here is a link to the video recording from the talk Health Activator web conference presented June 19, 2013. It also includes a short Q&A session:

And here are the slides if you want to see them separately:

The talk covers the basic principles of hormesis and how to apply them to improve in four areas:

  •  Physical strength
  •  Vision improvement
  •  Metabolic health
  •  Immune health

Many thanks to Christine Peterson for inviting me as a speaker.

Read More

What causes allergies and autoimmune disease?

Posted 26 Mar 2013 — by Todd
Category Diet, Health, Hormesis

Unknown-1Allergies and autoimmune disease are reaching epidemic proportions — not just in the U.S. and Europe, but in the rest of the industrially developing world.  Asthma, celiac disease, Type 1 diabetes, arthritis, multiple sclerosis, lupus — all are on the rise. Even certain conditions not previously considered immune disorders, such as autism, metabolic syndrome and obesity, are now seen as manifestations of immune dysfunction.

What caused all this?  Can the epidemic be reversed?  And what can you do if you suffer from asthma, allergies and autoimmune disease?

Many who follow this site are generally sympathetic to the “paleo” hypothesis: namely, that allergies, autoimmune disease , and other degenerative diseases are the spawn of neolithic agents — such as wheat and other grains, and legumes, introduced during the transition to an agrarian society  about 10,000 years ago.  These neolithic foodstuffs expose us to higher levels of carbohydrates and novel proteins and anti-nutrients — such as gluten, phytic acid and lectins — that our evolutionary history as primates did not adapt us (or at least many of us)  to tolerate.   There is a lot of evidence to support this idea — from archeology and comparative anthropology, to studies in genetics and immunology.

But is it true?

There is an alternative explanation that has now been put forward, based upon a revolution in immunology during the past decade.  Like the paleo hypothesis, this new theory is grounded in evolutionary biology, and it likewise sees our modern lifestyle as an evolutionary anomaly.  But this new perspective places the advent of the twin epidemics of allergy and autoimmunity — and more generally inflammatory disorders — not at the introduction of agriculture, but much more recently:  at the upswing and aftermath of the Industrial Revolution. And it identifies the causal agent not as the addition of neolithic foods, but rather the subtraction of a key protective factor that we’ve lived with since the beginning of human evolution, or even mammalian evolution.

The agent of our immunological misery is the disappearance of something we co-evolved with in a mutually beneficial relationships:  microbes and parasites that have lived inside our bodies for millennia.

This new hypothesis is brilliantly summarized in a recent book by Moises Velasquez-Manoff:  An Epidemic of Absence: A New Way of Understanding Allergies and Autoimmune Disease.  In 307 pages the author, a science writer, synthesizes a diverse range of research, interviews and adventures into a detective novel that ends with a quest to treat his own rare autoimmune disorder.  The book is both compelling and honest in probing both the promise and the limits of the arguments and evidence for this new perspective on practical immunology.

This new view leads to some unorthodox ideas about how to combat allergies and autoimmune diseases.  Some of the ideas being tested may seem wild to you.  But I’ll end with one very safe recommendation that makes good sense to me now, despite earlier doubts, and which I’ve already implemented with great gusto.

Read More

An alternative to vitamin D supplements?

Posted 11 Feb 2013 — by Todd
Category Diet, Fitness, Health, Hormesis

Screen Shot 2013-02-10 at 11.51.13 PMMy recent post on Why I don’t take vitamin D supplements generated a lot of interest and a few misconceptions.  In that article, I did not suggest any practical alternatives to taking high dose vitamin D supplements.  Here I will suggest a way that may provide the benefits of vitamin D without popping any pills, spending all day in the sun, or ingesting copious amounts of fish.

Some readers got the idea that I believe vitamin D is not beneficial, and that I discount the evidence from studies that show the benefits.  I want to dispel that notion.  I do acknowledge the key role that vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) play in bone mineralization and regulation of  innate and adaptive immunity, and among other things.  I further acknowledge that many (but certainly not all) studies support an association between higher vitamin D3 levels and reduced incidence of diseases such as cancer.

As I wrote:

Nobody doubts the important role of vitamin D in the body. But are higher levels of a hormone like vitamin D–whether or not provided as a supplement– always a good thing?

My doubts are focused on several points:

  • Under-appreciation of the fact that vitamin D is a hormone with diverse and dose-dependent systemic effects, still not fully understood
  • Misleading  claims that vitamin D supplementation is “equivalent”  to vitamin D from sun exposure. While the two forms are chemically identical, levels of vitamin D3 synthesized from sun exposure are self-limiting due to feedback regulation.  What happens when we chronically exceed natural limits?
  • Inadequate attention to the possible effects of chronic vitamin D supplementation on homeostatic down-regulation of the VDR receptor. See this discussion bv Dr. David Agus of USC medical school.
  • Inadequate study of the possible long term adverse effects of chronic vitamin D supplementation. Few studies look beyond 4 years. Hormone replacement therapy was in favor for 50 years before the risks came to light . Things don’t necessarily look any more promising when synthetic hormones are replaced bioidentical hormones.

My article created a dilemma for several commenters. These people acknowledged the risks, but nevertheless cited  benefits they personally experienced  from supplementing with vitamin D–ranging from fewer colds and flu, to relief of autoimmune symptoms, and even lessening of depression.

For these people, a key question remains:

Is there a way to get the benefits of vitamin D supplementation, while avoiding the dependency and risks of taking vitamin D capsules daily for the rest of your life?  While I don’t have a definitive proven answer to that question, recent research leads me to speculate here that there is a promising approach that is within everyone’s reach.

It lies within a powerful natural biological process called autophagy.

Read More

Conquer your fears

Posted 13 Dec 2012 — by Todd
Category Psychology

What follows is a guest post by a frequent contributor to the comments and Discussion Forum of this blog, Dr. Nate Eliason.  Nate, who has an M.D. in Pathology, has written on the Discussion Forum about his own success in applying hormesis to vision improvement.  As someone who sees the medical system “from the inside”, Nate has observed that medical interventions such as antidepressants often deliver short-term benefits while paradoxically causing long-term impairments.  This is the mirror image of hormesis, which promotes long-term health by deliberate application of short-term “stress”.

In this post, Nate focuses on an interesting case where “controlled stress” is particularly useful: the treatment of phobias by exposure therapy.  

Exposure Therapy

Exposure therapy has interested me since my days in medical school. It is a very effective, but often underused therapy for phobias, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), and anxiety.  In writing this post, I have relied on David Tolin’s excellent book, “Face Your Fears“.  I highly recommend it.

When fear becomes a problem. Fear is a natural emotion, necessary for our survival. A good analogy for how fear works is a car alarm system.  A well-functioning car alarm system protects our car by alerting us when someone is attempting to break in.  A car alarm which constantly goes off, however, is more harmful than helpful. In the same way, some people have a “broken” fear system, in which fear becomes hyperactive, turning into anxiety. Common anxiety disorders include panic disorder, agoraphobia, phobias, social phobia, OCD, generalized anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and separation anxiety disorder.  All of these are categorized as specific disorders, they have many features in common, and all respond to exposure therapy. While exposure therapy is primarily used for dealing with pathologic fears, it can also help us deal with routine fears which aren’t severe enough to be pathologic. For instance, most people have some fear of public speaking–but not to the degree that it is pathologic.  The same principles apply in overcoming non-pathologic fears. Towards the end of this post, I’ll give some examples on how I’ve used exposure therapy to deal with my own fears.

Fear is necessarily unpleasant because its “purpose” is to help us stay safe by avoiding dangerous situations.  However, when it becomes overactive, our entire life can be unpleasant. Exposure therapy deliberately ‘exposes’ us to fear in order to help us learn how to bring it under control and experience it in a normal way.  I need to emphasize that one of the primary objectives in exposure therapy is to feel the fear.  That’s right–our goal is to feel fear, and then to learn to deal with that fear. Read More